The wide-ranging social and health effects of occupational stress on the health of the working population have been well documented; for example, 23% of workers surveyed said they had been absent from work for work-related health reasons in the previous year. Visit Elementary Health. In the United Kingdom, the cost of sickness absence is estimated to be significant. In the United Kingdom, 177 million working days were lost due to sickness absence in 1994, resulting in a loss of over 11 billion pounds in productivity. In 2009, the HSE statistics show that only 29.3 million days were lost overall, with 24.6 million days lost due to work-related illness and 4.7 million days lost due to workplace injury. Working conditions are responsible for a large portion of the burden of ill health and the resulting sickness absence. Even when illness is caused by non-occupational factors such as smoking, lifestyle, diet, and so on, it is still considered work-related. Workplace-based interventions aimed at improving the health of the working population may help to reduce the burden of illness even more. The socioeconomic impact of environmental pollution caused by industrial processes on the working population is unknown at this time, but it is likely to add to the burden of disease in some communities. The health insurance industry has changed dramatically over the last few decades in the United States. Most people who had health insurance in the 1970s had indemnity insurance. Fee-for-service insurance is a term used to describe indemnity insurance. It is traditional health insurance, in which a fee is paid to a medical provider (usually a doctor or hospital) for each service provided to a patient covered by the policy. Consumer-driven health care is a significant category associated with indemnity plans (CDHC). Individuals and families with consumer-directed health plans have more control over their health care, including when and how they receive care, the types of care they receive, and how much they spend on health care services.